ASTM F MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE. FOR FALL ACCIDENT INJURY CRITERIA. Macky KATO1, Yoshie SHIMODAIRA2, Takeshi SATO3 and Hiromi. specification for playground surfacing performance (ASTM F). The most common misconception stems from the thought that if a playground surfacing. F, the voluntary standard for measuring impact attenuation of can meet the impact attenuation requirements of ASTM F, as long.

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Use of appropriate impact-attenuating surfacing materials in the use astk of playground equipment can reduce the risk of fall-related injury. Inj Prev 6—4.

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

The values given in parentheses are mathematical aetm to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Who falls to the surface, how they fall, where they fall from, what part of the body first impacts the surface, and what they fall upon including a myriad of surface material physical properties and environmental factors.

One example of a performance requirement established to reduce the likelihood of serious suspended component impact astn is the new Dynamic Swing Impact Test Method and Impact Threshold. This means that different transformation equations are needed for G-max and HIC to estimate the evaluation scores from the temporal scores by the shortened procedure.

This tendency in the HIC is larger relative to G-max. Generally, children need many different kinds of experiences while growing up. Factors that are astmm to affect surfacing material performance include but are not limited to aging, moisture, maintenance, exposure to temperature extremes for example, freezingexposure to ultraviolet light, contamination with other materials, compaction, loss of thickness, shrinkage, submersion in water, and so forth.

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

How the industry goes about formalizing and developing the scope of this research project will be the next challenge.


The laboratory test is mandatory for surfaces to conform to the requirements of this specification. ASTM Subcommittees continue to debate and discuss what should be the minimum acceptable impact attenuation performance requirements.

The Access Board has stated they would consider performance test comparisons of the playground accessible route and use zones between the laboratory ASTM F test results and field test value results utilizing the Rotational Penetrometer Test Method after the surface system final installation process was certified in writing.

The standardized procedure can estimate more exactly than the shortened procedure, however, this specification cannot prevent all injuries and deaths One possible procedure is the use of checklists.

This information is expressed as a critical fall height under both laboratory and in the field conditions. There are international standards development organizations and various advocacy groups who have conducted more recent studies that unfortunately are providing inconclusive data that lead to recommendations and conclusions that can only asstm the waters for the industry as a whole.

The debate on whether the percentage of injuries due to f129 has increased or decreased since the CPSC began analyzing injury data will continue but we cannot deny falls are still the number one cause of injuries requiring medical attention.

Leave this f129 blank. Furthermore limitations and uncertainties associated with the peak g model for head injury and with the peak criterion include the following: Is it a lack of maintenance? The waves on the sand have two peaks because there were two types of impacts. The Standard states there is only limited evidence that conformance with the requirements of the standard reduces the risk of other kinds of serious injury for example, long bone fractures.

I believe this debate has a significant impact on the outcomes of asgm ASTM F Standard in relationship to the scope of the standard. Knowing what I have r1292 about surfacing and surfacing performance in the field, I do not feel comfortable with the current amount of information these standards provide as industry recommendations to guide those responsible for maintaining the minimum requirements for impact attenuation surfacing performance and accessibility within the use zones and accessible routes.


Protecting children from wstm caused by fall accidents from playground equipment is important. The relative risk of fatality and of different degrees of head injury may be estimated using the information in Appendix X1which shows the relationships between the Head Injury Criterion HIC scores of an impact and the probability of head injury.

CPSC did recognize the different relationships between G-Max and HIC and decided to utilize both measures in the development of a performance standard and test method for fall-related playground injuries. The laboratory test is mandatory for surfaces to conform to the requirements of this specification. With this in mind, this study proposes a shortened measurement procedure and a transformation equation to estimate the risk as adtm as F Accessed August 30, The major increase in injury data seems to be directly related to the type of surface system.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This suggests that the combination of the shortened procedure and transformation equation would be equivalent to F, with the advantage of being more easily and efficiently applied to the evaluation of installed playground equipment. I think this is possible even without an ASTM field test method for easy post installation verification on site.

It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; asmt full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application.

One-package equipment to evaluate impact attenuation This Standard establishes an impact attenuation performance criterion for playground surfacing materials.